2017/04/29

慶應 環境情報学部の英語 (2017)

以下に記した英文の全体ないしは一部および単語は、慶應環境情報学部の最近9年分の一般入試出題から、特に「これは重要」と考えられるものを列記したもの。
(なお、主要な英文誌の掲載コラムなどから鑑みて特殊性が高いと思われるものは含みません。)
来春の入試本番に際して、自分がどの範疇の表現・語彙に強いのか、あるいは弱いのか、現時点での学力チェックシートのつもりで、辞書を用いずにどれだけ訳せるか試してみましょう。
さあ、頑張りましょう。


【 2017-I 】
早稲田理工の出題英文でも取り上げられた "moral dilemma" についての論、ただ本テキストの方が論旨がコンパクトで明瞭である。
  • a self-driving car
  • This scenario and many others pose moral and ethical dilemmas that carmakes, car buyers, and regulators must address ... .
  • The algorithms that control autonomous vehicle will need to embed moral principles guiding their decisions in situations of unavoidable harm.
  • survey queries (名詞)
  • an ethics thought experiment
  • A person watching the events unfold must choose between an intervention that sacrifices one person for the good of the group of people.
  • a key flaw in the study
  • AI does not have the same cognitive capabilities that we as humans have. ("AI" はノーヒント。)
  • a variety of sensors, including cameras and radar
  • The main challenge (to a driverless car) is in gathering and processing the necessary data quickly to avoid dangerous circumstances in the first place. Rajkumar (オブザーバー教授の名) acknowledges that this will not always be possible but he is skeptical that in such cases it will come down to the vehicle essentially deciding who lives and who dies. (ここは問38にかかる難所、下線部の間に "but" がおかれる論理的つながりに戸惑うかもしれないが、ポイントは、この教授が "not always possible" と語る対象と、彼が"skeptical" である内容が別物であるということ。)
※ そういえば、"researcher" と "observer" の峻別を質す設問41も早稲田理工に似ている。
※※ さらに、論理性を質す設問42も似ている (この設問では、或る者の生存が別の者の犠牲に依るとの排他的要件、つまり道義上のジレンマ厳密に選ばせている。) こういう論理輻輳タイプのパズル出題はこんご慶應や早稲田の理系学部では増えていくようにも察せられ、「英語らしさ」の追求としてみればまこと好ましい。

【 2017-II 】
  • Microalgae (微細藻類) is less land-intensive than corn production. 
  • the largely pro-corn Renewable Fuel Association
  • Corn is often outclassed in efficiency by algae-based fuels.
  • Algae biofuel frontrunner Algenol ... converts plentiful saltwater into biofuel with yields nearly 17 times higher than those of corn, while producing 1.4 gallons of fresh water per every gallon of fuel produced. (このあたり、何と何から何を作り出しているのか分かるだろうか?もちろん分かるべきだ。化学や生物を勉強してきたんだろう?)
  • Growing an ethanol-gallon's worth of corn costs 1,145 gallons of water.
  • simplistic metrics
  • Algae biofuel production can filter water, recycle runoff, and improve (chemical) emissions.
  • chemical breakdown of agricultural fertilizers (that are) trapped in soil ("breakdown" も分からないのなら慶應受けるのやめろ。理科で絶対に学んだはず。)
  • at best, a mediocre improvement
  • aquatic flora
  • Macroalgae, or kelp (海草) is a marine biofuel source promising some benefits that outstrip even its single-celled cousin. (ここは設問59にかかるヒッカケ、"micro --- " ではなく "macro --- " である。それで "single-celled cousin" の意味も分かる。)
  • On the freshwater front, prolific floating plants are gaining credibility as a candidate for wastewater-to-biofuel refineries.
  • water-borne nutrients

【 2017-III 】

孤独な個体はなぜ早死しやすいのか ─ 本当にあらゆる生物種について言えるのか、仮説と研究。論旨は極めて明瞭、英語表現も易しい。
※ 本テキストと直接の関係は無いが、世界各地には "Only the good die young." に相当する格言がある。不思議といえば不思議ではある。




【 2016-I 】
ヒュ-マノイド型ロボットは、既に活用されているロボット(機械)を上回るだけの経済的効用をもたらさない、よって製品開発化は進行しないだろう ─ という易しい内容。ただしその理由を挙げた第8~9段落は散文的ゆえ、論旨捕捉に留意方。
  • We have envisioned building humanoid machines.
  • microchip
  • market forces (名詞)
  • The mechanics of the human body are spectacularly complex.
  • Speaker-independent, open-ended speech recognition with better than 99 percent reliability isn't part of our near future. (ここで "open-ended" と "speech recognition" から文意を導くこと必須、ITの基礎知識と語感が全てであり、文法解析などはむしろそれらを鈍らせるばかり。)
  • artificial intelligence (これも現代テクノロジー論の「ド」常識)
  • Reproducing human thought in a controlled situation - like the game of chess - is barely within our grasp.
  • something we'll be able to develop for generations, if ever
  • build a machine to replicate the human form
  • intersection (この語は早慶他学部でもちらっと見た、もちろん汎用語)
  • A humanoid robot would be a multipurpose platform that could do almost anything.
  • select robotic options on the fringe of self-driving technology
  • collision avoidance

【 2016-II 】
ナノテクノロジーにおける小稿、新しさがいい。 "nano" も "big data" も "the cloud" も英語以前の超基本知識だ。
  • A nanoparticle is one billionth of a metre.
  • Richard Feynman, a renowned physicist and Nobel Prize winner : the father of quantum electrodynamics  (理工学部に続けてまたファインマンだ。むろん、彼の名と基本業績くらいは基礎教養として知っていてもおかしくはない。)
  • the use of powerful supercomputers to make the most of decades of big data on tiny nanoscience
  • self-cleaning surfaces, fuels cells for harnessing energy, printable inks that conduct electricity ...  (どれも名詞。表面科学についての知識。)
  • Diamond nanoparticles ... have unique electrostatic properties that make them spontaneously arrange into very useful structures. ("property" は最重要の多義語。ここでは何のことか。)
  • underpin the development
  • life-saving chemotherapy treatment
  • brain tumour
  • Going into big data-sets to identify trends between nano properties and structures is like finding buried treasure. It's exciting when you can see the forest for the trees and  get a moment of clarity when all the data collects. (まとめて引用、ここが一番読み応えのある箇所。 "properties" と "structure" は前文での定義に拠って考える。)
  • By predicting how imperfections at a molecular level impact on performance, we can design products with less susceptibility to faults from the outset.
  • Implementing our science on the (big data) cloud is the biggest technical challenge.
  • The cloud would provide easy open access to results amongst our research peers.

【 2016-III 】
これはなかなかの良問!早稲田理工の出題と歩調合わせたかのように脳とコンピュータについて取り上げた、教養英語の最先端テキスト。尤もこちらは 『人間の情感含めた頭脳活動と行動は根源的にどれだけコンピュータに近似しているか』 と探究してゆくもので、逆ではない。
接続詞や副詞が少なめで部分否定表現が多い、慶應好みの文面(今回はニューヨークタイムズ誌)だが、理科の基本名詞さえあれば論旨捕捉はさほど難しくはない。参照図案が付けられていればもっとよかった。来年からそうして欲しい(笑)。
  • holographic storage device
  • analogy without a lot of substance
  • serial, stored-program machine
  • The brain's nerve cell are too slow and variable to be a good match for the transistors and logic gates that we use in modern science. (ここの "match" の意味、それからなぜ単数表現かを考えたい。)
  • a serial algorithm-crunching machine
  • measurable phenomena (like the mechanics of how calcium ions are trafficked through a single neuron)
  • Virtually every time a human does anything, many different parts the brain are engaged; that's parallel, not serial. (まとめて引用、とりあえずここで "parallel", "serial" の違いが分かれば基礎教養は有る。そうでなければここでギヴアップ。)
  • hard-drive controller
  • central processor
  • multicore processor
  • graphic processing unit
  • metaphor
  • Things that are digital operate only with discrete divisions, as with the digital watch ; things that are analog work on a smooth continuum.
  • Neural systems ... that modulate emotions appear to work in roughly the same way as the rest of the brain does, which is to say that they transmit signals and integrate information, and transform inputs into outputs. ... That's pretty much like what computers do. (ここで、脳のコンピュータへの機能的な近似性を説き始めていることに留意。コンピュータが脳にどのくらい似てるかではない。)
  • The real payoff in subscribing to the idea of a brain as a computer would come from using that idea to profitably guide research. ("payoff" はもうすっかり定番の表現。いまだにちゃんと説明していない予備校センセもいるので注意。)
  • FPGAs (Field programmable gate array) consist of a large number of "logic block" programs ...  One logic block might do arithmetic, another signal processing, and yet another look things up in a table. (ここが最大の難所。ゲートアレイが構成するという "logic block" はハードかソフトか、何を成しうるのか、絵が無くとも精密に考えたい。)
  • The brain might similarly consist of highly orchestrated sets of fundamental building blocks, such as "computational primitives" for constructing sequences, retrieving information from memory, and routing information between different locations in the brain. (ここが最大のヤマ場だ。上に続いてここでも "block" とあり、とくに "primitive" がじつに分かりにくいが、脳内での演算処理の "sequences" を形成する... となると演算用の最も根源的なプログラムをさす ─ はずだ。)
  • the Rosetta Stone that unlock the brain (洒落た比喩表現。ロゼッタストーンじゃなくて "unlock" の方が。)
  • It is unlikely that we will ever be able to directly connect the language of neurons and synapses to the diversity of human behavior. (ここがすんなり分かればもう全貌を掴めたも同じ。"language" に留意、プログラム言語という意味では断じてない。)
  • There is no reason to think that brains are exempt from the laws of computation.




【 2015-I 】
言語多様性を残せ!というメッセージで、ニューヨークに流入し続ける移民と「その結果としての」複数言語の無秩序な並立あるいは消失を語るもの。(なお、言語についての論旨は定量的な効用判断が希薄となりがちなもの、主旨を見失わぬよう留意。)
  • By the late 19th century, New York had become a melting pot of footloose Europeans.
  • If a language has a million speakers worldwide, most likely one of those speakers live in New York - but so are many endangered and vanishing languages. (全世界でみて、或る一言語あたりそれぞれ百万人の話者がいるとして…、というここでの論理設定からニューヨークの在りようが分かるはず。)
  • the last remaining representatives of a whole language family
  • the liberation of word order
  • The great migrations ... came to a sudden halt with the Immigration Act of 1924, with its hard cap on immigrants and its racist quotas ... 
  • paramount
  • The secret language of barbers changed from Italian to Russian. (ここは文学的に面白い表現。)
  • Immigration in New York is so fast and fluid ... that the specific effects are easily missed. (ここの "miss" の真意は?)
  • The city is endlessly incorporating new cultures.
  • There's still an unease : we may well be swallowing up the world's diversity and spitting out monoculture. (ここも文学的ではあるが "diversity" と "monoculture" の対置が分かるだろうか?)
  • make up a plausible microcosm of global linguistic diversity
  • The place, almost by design, seems ever less than the sum of its parts, an endpoint for cultures, "a Babel in reverse"... ("The place" はここではニューヨークの意。さて "by design" を含めこの箇所は数値上の面積縮小について述べているのではない。とりわけ面白いのが「逆バベル」の喩で、バベルの塔の伝説 ─ 太古の人間は皆が均一の言葉を話す均一の種族であった ─ の逆が進行しているとの表現だが、本旨を理解して欲しい。)
  • a small nonprofit in an old commercial building
  • a scattered group of linguists who make ends meet elsewhere
  • Of the estimated 176 languages indigenous to and still spoken in the United States, at least fifty are nearly extinct.
  • improve cognitive development
  • Indigenous people with resilient languages and cultures are better able to withstand social breakdown.
  • Consider the massive loss of knowledge and wisdom and art that comes with the loss of any language, which no amount of last-minute translation can stop. ("last-minute translation" の逼迫した表現心理が分かるだろうか?)
※ なお設問対象とはなっていないが、第4段落にある、言語の "unique personality" について、真意は考慮に値するものである、ちょっと考えてみたい。

    【 2015-II 】 
    これは2013年の大問 I 同様、SNSメディアについての英文テキストだが、指示代名詞が極端に少なく、名詞の単数形表現が抽象か具体かを判別しにくいなど、まるでエンジニア専門誌のようなノリの文体が読み難い ─ とはいえ第8段落から始まる筆者なりの問題解決案以降は、他学部の英文と同様に読み進められるのではないか。
    本テキストの大意としては ─ Facebook や Google などのSNSメディアが、不特定多数のアカウントユーザに対し情報を提供ないしは隠しうるという選択的機能を恣意的に活用し、特定ユーザを特定利益に誘導することは社会的に公正と言い難い、だからこれらSNSメディアには最低でもユーザ情報の受託者たる責任を遵守させるべきである、という。とりわけ本テキスト前半部の理解には英語力よりむしろ数理(集合)のセンスの方が求められるかもしれない。
    (ちなみに、本テキストに引用の "newsfeed" とはFacebookユーザが共有で閲覧可能なニュース情報であり、また "likes" はユーザが個人判断にてそれらのニュース情報に付記する 「いいね!」 という嗜好フラグのことである。また Google はネット上での検索エンジンを提供しているが、検索ページにスポンサー企業などの広告を併せて提示している。)
    • ambitious experiment in civic-engineering
    • nudge bystanders to the voting booths
    • Users who were notified of their friends' voting were 0.39 percent more likely to vote than those in the other group, and any resulting decisions to vote also appeared to spread to the behavior of close Facebook friends. ( ここの "resulting" が学術的で捕捉しにくいが、何の "result" として何が起こったのか理解必須である。)
    • the ripple effect
    • Now consider a hypothetical hotly contested future election.
    • political party affiliation
    • He arranges for a voting prompt to appear within the newsfeeds of active Facebook users ...(中略) He could choose not to change the feeds of users who don't agree with his views. (ここでの "he" とは仮定として、或る排他的な特定政治志向を有するFacebook経営者のこと。この仮想経営者は何をしようとしているのか理解要。)
    • flip the outcome of the election
    • Our expectations is that those companies will provide open access to others' content and that the variables in their processes just help yield the information we find most relevant. Digital gerrymandering occurs when a site instead distributes information in a manner that serve its own political agenda. (2文まとめて引用、ここからようやく本テキストの主題に入る。ここの単数名詞 "content" が分かりにくいが、テキスト全体から鑑みてニュースフィードか検索結果の意。"variables" は理解必須。さて2文目のゲリマンダーとは一般に小選挙区制度(多数派による独占)にて、有力者が自己優位を図り選挙区を独善的に設定する施策をさす。政治経済の履修用語のひとつ。また、"instead" に要留意、つまり1文目の "open access" とは異なり "distribute" しているの意である。)
    • leverage their awesome platforms to attempt to influence policy
    • Google blacked out its home page "doodle" as a protest against the pending Stop Online Piracy Act in the US, which they thought would cause censorship. (抗議的態度を見せたGoogleと "censorship" の相反する利害関係を理解して欲しい。)
    • A social-media or search company looking to ... attempt to create a favorable outcome in an election would certainly have the means.
    • fail-safe
    • In the United States, both people and corporations have a First Amendment right to free speech - and to present their contents as they see fit.
    • Meddling with how a company gives information to its users ... is asking for a trouble.
    • require web companies entrusted with personal data and preferences to act as "information fiduciaries" (情報の受託者)
    • provide a way for users ... to see how that content would appear if it were not personalized (ここでの "content"も検索結果やニュースフィードを指す。なお "personalized" の真意を理解必須。)
    • use any formulas of personalization
    • subliminal messages in TV advertisements
    • The worst case scenarios should be placed off limits.




     2014-I 
    地球温暖化などなどで引用される諸々のデータは、実際は人間自身の体感や連想力から暫定的に捻出されるに過ぎない場合もある ─ と説くテキスト、早稲田理工にちょっと似た段階的な分析展開で、こちらの方が語彙の抽象度は高いがメモを取りながら読めば易しい。
    • Hurricane Sandy devastated the US Atlantic coast.
    • sway people’s view (総合政策のテキストでもキーワードとして引用された動詞”sway”は、意外に勘違いしやすいもの、辞書で例文を確認しよう)
    • global warming and other pressing environmental and social concerns
    • They may think it reasonable to infer that the global climate is changing, forgetting that global warming actually entails a gradual elevation on the earth’s average temperature. (”entail”は論文では頻出の動詞、出来れば覚えておきたい。)
    • subliminal message (理科で習ったはず)
    • they flashed the word “thirst” on a computer screen for 17 milliseconds
    • activate the thought without having the physical experience
    • transparency of each photo
    • all the way to 100 percent (図抜けて面白い汎用表現)
    • Liberals were more likely than conservatives to believe in global warming.
    • Trying to convince people of something by simply delivering facts can sometimes be polarizing because it gives people something to react to. (ここが読み取れれば、唯一の難問である出題[30]にも対処出来よう。なお”polarize”はどちらかといえば社会科の英語だが論文では頻出。)
    • elicit a more universal intuitive response
    • The term global warming was coined. (この”coin”も論文では頻出動詞)
     2014-II 
    ア メリカで主に進展した第二次産業革命が生み出した工業の枠組みは、今現在の世界の諸産業においても製品技術においても根本的には変わっていない ─ とい う旨の学際的なテキストで、高名な経済学者クルーグマン氏なども引用されつつ、主題への賛否両論をちょっと戸惑わせる構成だ。もっとも、スケール大きな素 晴らしい主題の割には導入部だけで終わっているのが惜しい。
    • Nothing happened that mattered.
    • the well-being of average people
    • It took 350 years for a family to double its standard of living.
    • Two things happened that did matter, and they were so grand that they dwarfed everything that had come before and encompassed most everything that has come since. (”most everything”という語法はない、などと子供みたいなレベルで遊んでいる教師や講師は、きっと大人向けの先鋭かつ強引な英文メディアを知らないのだろうから無視しなさい)
    • incredible stroke of good luck
    • permanent stagnation
    • Human intelligence is more efficiently mobilised by spreading education and expanding global connectedness.
    • What is to say that anything similar will happen again ? (”what is to say that ... ?”は汎用的な常套句)
    • breakthrough
    • internal combustion engine (理科社会ともに超常識語!)
    • Electrical appliances allowed women of all social classed to leave behind housework for more productive jobs. (この”productive”あるいは”productivity”は経済・ビジネス分野における最重要単語のひとつ、かつ多義語である。文脈ごとに意味をおさえたい。)
    • public sewers and water sanitation
    • infant mortality
    • a science fiction streak
    • economics of technology
    • The long history of Marx-inflected literature and film that claims that office work is dehumanising may have been onto something. (理系だろうがなんだろうが”Marx”を知らなかったら話にならない。”dehumanise”はスペルから類推力で意味を考えたい。なお”onto”は総合政策でもキーワードの一つとなったが、辞書で例文を確認しておこう。)
    • a whole set of behaviours ... our laissez-faire-ism, our can-do-ism, our cult of the individual (レッセ=フェールなどは社会科で習ったはずだ)
    • We think of the darkening social turn that happened in the early 1970s as having something to do only with the social energies of the sixties collapsing in on themselves.  (この箇所は、70年代初頭の経済停滞を限定的な例にすぎぬとした例。なお”collapsing”の主語は”something”である。)
    • Increased global connectedness hampers competition.
    • Neither computers nor the Internet would have ever come to pass. (なぜインターネットが大文字Iで始まるのか、常識としてちゃんと理解しておくこと。)
    ※ 設問[53]は排他的選択で正答させるものだが、積極的な正答選択肢は無いのでは?
    設問[54]は飛行機やマスメディアが第二次産業革命の”natural result”であると判定させるもの、しかし工業製品をnaturalなものと判断しうるのか?



    2013-I
    IT技術によって収集・形成されるユーザ個人の諸々の特性データの総計は、その対象個人の人格(生き様)と一致しうるか(或いはし得ないか) ─ と問いかけるやや学術性の高いエッセイで、かつGoogleFacebookによるユーザ個々人の嗜好性の認識手法などは一般人の見識を超えた引用ではある。つまり久しぶりに学生には手ごわい内容となった。
    とはいえ、本問は情報工学の基礎素養を問い質す出題でもあり、一定以上の素養を有する受験生であれば第6パラグラフまで読了した時点で本旨を総括し得たのではなかろうか。
    ※ なお予め記しおくが ─ 本テキストを理解する上で観念的に最も重要な語の一つは ”context” であり、本テキストでは「条件・状況」の意であること理解必須、また ”self” も要留意で各文から観念をとらえること必須である。
    また本テキストは順接・逆接の副詞が極端に少ないのでやや読み難いが耐えること、さらに仮想表現も無視せぬよう…但し、設問で求められる動詞熟語の一部は難度高く学生の領域を超えたもの。
    • development of “personalization – the process through which the type of information offered is adjusted to user’s demands  (テキスト冒頭箇所におけるこの定義から、”personalisation” は「ユーザ自身によるIT最適化の所為ではない」ことに要留意。) 
    • spend more time consuming broadcast media than personalised content streams on the Internet 
    • Personalization require a theory of what makes a person – of what bits of data are most important to ascertain who someone is. ”someone” はここでは誰か或る人物のこと。) 
    • The assumption is that searches for “intestinal gas”() and celebrity gossip are between you and your browser ... it’s that behaviour that determines what content you see in Google News, what ads Google displays – that determines, in other words, Google’s theory of you. (この一連の箇所がGoogle検索エンジンとユーザの関係の概説、なお ”The assumption” はユーザ自身の仮定を指す。) 
    • benefits and drawbacks 
    • A self (that is) built on clicks will tend to draw us even more toward the items we’re predisposed (癖になっている) to look at already. 
    • your perusal of an article on a celebrity gossip 
    • Your Facebook self is more of a performance, less of a metaphoric black box. (慶應受けるならブラックボックスくらいは常識!) 
    • We are more than the bits of data we give off as we go about our lives. (第6段落のこの箇所で本テキストの論旨が見えてくる。) 
    • paradigm (これも常識語!) 
    • explain people’s behaviour in terms of their unchanging inner traits 
    • fluid 
    • The plasticity of the self allows for social situations that would be impossible or intolerable if we always behaved exactly the same way. 
    • aspiration 
    • By the same token, billboards in the night-life district promote different products than billboards in the residential neighbourhoods .... 
    • companies who have skewed view of what identity is 
    • Everything we do enters a permanent, pervasive online record. 
    • chilling effect 
    • genetic privacy 
    • We‘re so far away from the nuances of what it means to be human, as (we are) reflected in the nuances of the technology. 
    • In theory, however, the one-identity, context-blind problem isn’t impossible to fix. (第12段落のこの箇所が本テキストの最終総括である。) 
    • balance long-term and short-term interests 
    • gauge the workings of your psyche 
    • jeopardize


    2013-II 
    こちらは早稲田商学部あたりで出題しても良い包括的な工業技術論で、ソフトウェアで実現しうる機器製造工程の融通性と、最終製品としての機能保全性をともに考えさせるもの。
    • “Smart” infusion pumps deliver drugs perfectly dosed for individual patients.
    • the brink of death 
    • The software in a pacemaker may require over 80,000 lines of code. 
    • vulnerability to digital attacks 
    • Software in a medical device malfunctions. 
    • reboot PC 
    • the expertise or the willingness to utilize new tools 
    • patent infringement 
    • source code 
    • validate software 
    • build the device from the scratch 
    • hardware specification 
    • assembly instruction 
    • Open-source model is more sustainable. (この “open-source” は何をオープンにしているのか、常識ではあるが言葉と観念だけでいくら考えても判るものではない。) 
    • FDA (Food and Drug Administration) insists on a rigorous paper trail detailing software development. 
    • good fit with the collaborative and often informal nature of open-source coding 
    • navigate the regulatory regime 
    • embrace openness 
    • A blood-pressure cuff (血圧計) could instruct a drug pump to stop delivering medication if it sensed that a patient was suffering an adverse reaction. 
    • open-source hub

      
    2012- I 
    遺伝工学が市場経済にもたらす利益競争のリスクに対して、社会の結束力は抑止力たりうるだろうかと問いかける ─ 前年よりは易化したもののダイナミックな論旨のテキスト、とはいえ発展的見解の無きまま消化不良の読後感は残るものの。
    • genetic engineering 
    • biotechnological enhancement
    • artificially improve children in a quest for perfection 
    • undermine the unconditional love parents have for their children 
    • resort to genetic engineering for the sake of giving their children a competitive edge 
    • hormonal deficiency 
    • I consider breakthroughs in genetics a great blessing for medicine and for the relief of suffering. 
    • Eugenics was associated with coercion and state control of reproduction. 
    • The connection between solidarity and giftedness saves a merit-based society from sliding into self-centredness.  
    • humility and restraint 
    • civic consequences
    2012-II
    医学部の英文にも出てくる “tag経済学部でも登場する “identity theft” など、やはり同じ慶應のこと、語彙の選択基準も通じているのか(もっともこのような共通キーワードの例は過去にもいくらでもあるのだが。)
    • Many of the world’s collective knowledge is now freely accessible at a moment’s notice with simple keyword searches.
    • crooked business dealings
    • evolution of the concept of “surveillance” in the Internet age
    • negative connotation
    • identity theft
    • online financial scams
    • cyber crimes and misdemeanours ("demean" は知っておいて欲しい) 
    • your movements are being logged 
    • susceptible to possible attack from strangers 
    • location tagged photographs 
    • comment moderation 
    • opting out of certain services 
    • venue 
    • The watcher occupies a position metaphorically above the watched. (metaphoric は頻度高い語彙ではないが、“meta”から類推されたし) 
    • flat power structure wherein the watcher and watched are of equal standing 
    • whereabouts


    2011 – 
    これは文意の難度高め、主題と反証が輻輳するメッセージ。
    人間の心性や特性に対する理解を観察対象者の内因性のみに完結させることなく、観察時に対象者がおかれた事情(context)をよく斟酌した上で客観化させるべきである、と説いている。
    そこを見極めれば正答は意外にたやすい。
    • All of us, when it comes to personality, naturally think in terms of absolutes : that a person “is” a certain way or not “is not” a certain way. 
    • stable
    • think of character as unified and all-encompassing 
    • inherent traits
    • attribution (to each human behaviour) 
    • dispositional explanation for events
    • They are told to play a quiz game, then they are paired off and they draw lots. 
    • the most impossibly biased and rigged set of questions 
    • personal cues, contextual cues
    • Older siblings are domineering and conservative.
    • Younger siblings are more creative and rebellious.
    • Psychologists actually tried to verify the claim and showed that we do reflect the influences of birth order. 
    • If we constantly had to qualify “every assessment” of those (people) around us, how would we make sense of the world ?
    • The human kind has a mind of "reducing valve" that creates and maintain the perception of continuity in the face of perpetual observed changes in actual behaviour. (ここの "valve" の真意をつかみたい。)
    2011- II 
    これは慶應英語最高の名文のひとつか、生物の機能進化と人間社会の組織化を巧妙に比較論証しているエッセイで、そのメッセージは環境情報学部にしてはかなり「多元的で複雑」、むしろ経済学部の英文に近い。 
    • We can transfer words, code, equations, music or video anytime to anyone, essentially for free. 
    • We evolved complex brains controlling our behaviour, partially displaying basically hormonal, one-to-many systems. 
    • unicellular 
    • bacteria 
    • single-celled organism 
    • Amoeba is a self sufficient entity. 
    • Being “jacks of all trades”, such cells were masters of none. (この程度の慣用句は知っておきたい) 
    • Specialisation and division of labour allowed teams of cells to vastly outclass their single celled ancestors. 
    • This question directly parallels the origin of societies of specialised humans. 
    • In hormonal systems, master control cells broadcast potent signals all other cells must obey. 
    • Powerful dictatorship issues sweeping orders. 
    • A novel cell type is specialised in information processing: the neuron. 
    • Language enables humans to move arbitrary thoughts from one mind to another. 
    • Small bands of people forms local clusters of organisation.
    • hunter-gatherers
    • proclamations and legal decisions of the ruler 
    • We are on the brink of a wholly new system of social organisation.
    • universal protocols for information transfer such as HTML and TCP/IP
    • well-connected collective entities like Google and Wikipedia
    • Political, economic and military power remains insulated from the global brain.
    • During natural selections, billions of competing false starts and miswired individuals were ruthlessly weeded out.  (miswired は、誤って生命情報が回路付けされた、くらいの意か、一般誌でもしばしば見受けられる表現)
    • trial and error process
    • extract a functional configuration



    2010 –I 
    • dark and savage age of world wars, genocide, and totalitarian ideologies
    • non-renewable resources
    • erasure of entire ecosystems
    • We may be ready to settle down before we wreck the planet.
    • per-capita fresh water 
    • The ecological footprint – the average amount of productive land and shallow sea appropriated by each person for food – is about one hectare in developing nations. 
    • Homo sapiens has become a geophysical force to attain that dubious distinction. 
    • Immediate future is conceived of as a bottleneck in the Century of Environment. 
    • obstinacy 
    • doomsaying 
    • Cereal production, the source of more than half the food calories of the poor nations, rose from 275 kilograms per head in the early 1950s to 370 kilograms by the 1980s. 
    • Population must outstrip the limited resources. 
    • On occasion this scenario unfolded locally. 
    • Earth is finite. 
    • corporate annual reports 
    • competent projection of the world’s long-term economic future 
    • two polar views of the economic future 
    • Earth, unlike the other solar planets, is not in physical equilibrium. 
    • For hundreds of millennia those who worked for short-term gain lived longer and left more offspring. 
    • The long view that might have saved their distant descendants required a vision and an extended altruism instinctively difficult to marshal.
    2010 – II 
    • seek a greater degree of civility among members of the House of Representative (civility は使用頻度の高い語彙ではないが、テキスト前段部から判断して「敬意に満ちた礼儀正しさ」くらいの語義であること読みとるべき) 
    • foster an environment in which vigorous debate and mutual respect can co-exist 
    • Republicans and Democrats 
    • the demand for society to conform to the rules of civility 
    • gross hypocrisy 
    • Who has not felt like yelling at injustice or tearing down the walls of prejudice ? 
    • Dr. King’s genius was to inspire the diverse people involved in the struggle to be civil and loving in their dissent. 
    • partisan 
    • system of segregation 
    • the connections that bind America’s heterogeneous population into a united community 
    • code of conduct 
    • value the means of our achievements as well as the ends of our desires


    2009 – I 
    • The rivers are the people’s lifeblood. 
    • Lacking proper sanitation and water-storage facilities, Bangladesh is also prone to epidemics of water-borne diseases. 
    • Render large tracts of agricultural land useless. 
    • well water contaminated with arsenic 
    • The issue was overlaid by fractious regional politics. 
    • For politicians, water is the defining issued, and the Ganges’s basin is home to some 400 million people. 
    • The picture looks bleak. 
    • low-yielding but flood-tolerant rice 
    • Aid-donor-backed irrigation schemes, later incorporating groundwater pumping, have opened up vast areas of fertile delta soil to the plough. 
    • The pollution has quadrupled since 1950. 
    • The rapid population growth has exacerbated problems with water-borne disease. 
    • The programme was deemed an unqualified success. 
    • The tragedy that has subsequently unfolded reveals in stark terms how “solutions” to water-resource problem can go astray. 
    • The villagers’ water supply was massively tainted with the metal. 
    • organic material 
    • The finding has sown seeds of doubt.
    2009 –II 
    • Ideally, the parent would allow the child to gain coordination and competency though manipulating his utensils and feeding himself. 
    • The teacher may later discourage the autonomy strivings of the young child. 
    • The danger lies in a sense of inadequacy and inferiority which the child may gain. 
    • Failure becomes a self-fulfilling prophecy. 
    • Misguided efforts of adults seriously interfere with growth in competence and cause lasting damage. 
    • inspire the individual to exert that little extra something 
    • crippling feeling of inadequacy and despair 
    • He may mutter that “it isn’t fair”. 
    • Persistent failure may lead to anxiety and failure-avoidance patterns of effort. 
    • No one will expect him to succeed and hence will not condemn him for failing. 
    • A teacher who grades the class on a sliding scale, with A’s(A評点のこと) going to the children who compete the most problems correctly or write the most imaginative or sophisticated papers ... , is setting up a competitive situation that will defeat some children all the time. (この箇所、原文は更に長いものだが、何を書いてあるのか3回読むうちには理解して欲しい) 
    • mediocre 
    • balance the realisation of academic nonachievement and recognition of intellectual incompetency 
    • treadmill 
    • The criterion of ultimate success for the teacher is a child who is competent to direct his own learning with minimal guidance and help from the teacher. 

    以上

    謝辞

    ここに提示の記事は、いずれも私自身の判断責任のもと編集・投稿したものです。

    大半の投稿は学生など若年層向けを意図してやや平易な表現にて、通俗性は極力回避しつつ、論旨の明示性を重視しつつ書き綴りました。あわせてまた、社会人の皆様にお読み頂くことも想定しつつ、汎用性高い観念知識を相応に動員しながら記した積もりです。

    私なりの思考着想によるささやかな閃きが、皆様の諸活動にて何らかの光源たり得れば、望外の喜びであります。

    山本